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Sociology of Tourism

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Additional Info

  • Type of Module/Course: Prescribed Core Module
  • Level of Module / Course: Undergratuate Course
  • Year of Study: 1st
  • Semester: Winter Semester
  • Number of credits allocated: 4,5 ECTS
  • Number of teaching units: 3
  • Name of lecturer / lecturers: Anna Kyriakaki
  • Content outline:

    The module analyzes through a historical overview, the social, cultural and economic conditions which led to the emergence of the tourism phenomenon. In continue the characteristics and parameters that affect the tourist attitude are determined, in order to come across the mechanism via which a person behaves before, during and after the trip. The study of modern tourists motives coupled with the search for more mild forms of development (on the part of host communities) have as a result the better understanding of social dimensions of development of special and alternative forms of tourism in the modern world. The role of tourism in the social development of the host communities and the social impacts of tourism development are also important issues for the discipline of Sociology of Tourism. Finally, are also studied: a) the quality of life in tourist areas, b) the improvement of social indicators, c) the concept of social interests, d) the rights and the obligations of tourists and the ethics in tourism (i.e. the ethics in business, etc), e) the planning of tourism development, and f) the arrangement of tourist trips.

  • Learning outcomes:

    After the completeness of the learning process, the post-graduate student will be able to:

    • understand the social and economic factors that shape the development of modern tourism
    • identify the factors that form the basic elements  of typologies of modern tourists
    • understand and  categorize the characteristics of the incentives that lead to the modern trips
    • understand and interpret the communication framework between tourists and host communities and via this to assess the impact of tourism development on the tourist areas
    • identify and recognize the characteristics of the stages of tourism development
    • recognize the changes which are caused by tourism  in the social, cultural, economic, professional and productive structure of tourist destinations
    • be aware of the ethical issues in tourism development, and finally
    • be aware of the alternative functions of different forms of tourism and the possibilities they provide for social development

    The understanding and interpretation of the above issues through the sociological analysis, can help the post - graduate student not only to acquire the ability to identify the essential factors for an effective tourism planning (in micro or macro level) but also to examine alternative and innovative solutions in order to achieve sustainable practices in the tourism sector.

  • Prerequisites:

    For the better understanding of the course it would be beneficial for the students to have sufficient knowledge of the modules: Sociology, Tourism Economy and Tourism Marketing.

  • Module Contents (Syllabus):
    • Historical overview of the emergence of the tourism. Social and economic factors that formed the modern tourism
    • Conceptual framework of the modern tourist and tourism
    • The tourism as a research’s field of social science
    • Features, Typologies and Motivations of tourists
    • Sociological and Psychosocial approaches to the context “Hosts and Guests”
    • Social (social and professional mobility) transition and cultural impacts in the tourism destinations
    • Interrelations between Tourism and Environment. Special and Alternative Forms of Tourism
    • Sustainable Development and Sustainable Practices
    • Ethics in tourism. Tourist's rights and obligations. Business ethics. Social benefits to the Local Communities
  • Recommended Reading:
    Α) Principal Reference:
    • Tsartas, P., (1996) Tourists, Travels, Places: Sociological Approaches in Tourism. Exandas, Athens.
    • Holden, A., (2008) Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences, Papazisi, Athens.
    • Augerinou- Kolonia, S., et al (2000) Tourism Development. Multi- Science Approaches. Exandas, Athens.
    • Coccosis, H. & Tsartas, P., (2001) Sustainable Tourism Development and Environment. Kritiki, Athens.
    • Butler, R.W. (2006) The Tourism Area Life Cycle, Vol.1, Applications and Modifications. Channel View Publications, England.
    • Cohen, E. (1974) Who is a tourist? A conceptual clarification, Sociological Review, Vol.22, pp.527-555
    • Smith, V. (1978) Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism, Second Edition, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
    • Tsartas, P., Zagkotsi, S., Kontis, A.P. and Kyriakaki, A. (2004) Social and professional mobility in touristic areas of Greece: a critical appraisal of research findings (1972-2004), presented in The 2004 Conference Borderless Frontiers: the Implications for Tourism in the New & Enlarged European Union», Nicosia, Cyprus, 10-11 December, 2004.
    Β) Additional References:
    • Coccosis, H. & Tsartas, P., (2001) Sustainable Tourism Development and Environment. Kritiki, Athens.
    • Galani-Moutafi, V., (2002) Tourism Surveys in Greece and Cyprus: an anthropological approach, Propobos, Athens.
    • Lytras, P., (1998) Sociology of Tourism, Second Edition, Interbooks, Athens
    • Manologlou, E., et al (1998) Tourism as a Factor of Social Change. EKKE, Athens.
    • Tsartas, P., (1989) Social and Economic Impact of Tourism Development in the Prefecture of Cyclades and especially on the islands Ios and Serifos during the period 1950 - 1980. EKKE, Athens.
    • Tsartas, P. (1991) Research on Social Characteristics of Employment. Study III. Tourism and Rural Polydrastiriotita, EKKE, Athens.
    • Vansehoven, K., et al (1995) Sustainable Development. Theoretical Approaches in a crucial concept, Papasotiriou, Athens.
    • Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (1993) Sustainable Tourism: An Evolving Global Approach, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol.1, pp.1-5.
    • Boissevain, J. (1992) Revitalizing European Rituals. Routledge, London.
    • Buhalis, D. and Fletcher, J. (1995) “Environmental Impacts on Tourist Destinations: an Economic Analysis”. In Coccosis, H. and Nijkamp, P. (eds.), Sustainable Tourism Development. Avebury: Aldershot, pp. 3-24.
    • Butler, R.W. (1980). The Concept of a Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution: Implications for Management of Resources, Canadian Geographer. Vol. 24, No 1, pp. 5-12
    • Butler, R.W. (1991) Tourism, Environment and Sustainable Development, Environment Conservation, Vol. 18, pp.201-209.
    • Coccossis, H. (1996) “Tourism and Sustainability: Perspectives and Implications”. In Priestley, G.K., Edwards, J.A. and Coccossis, H. (eds.), Sustainable Tourism? European Experiences. Wallingford Oxford: Cab international, pp.1-21.
    • Cohen E., (1984) The Sociology of Tourism: Approaches, Issues and Findings, Annals Revue of Sociology, 10, p. 373-392.
    • Cohen, E. (1984) A Phenomenology of Tourist Experiences. Tourism and the quest for the centre. Centre des Hautes Etudes Touristiques, Serie C., N. 52.
    • Cohen, E. (1988) Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.15, pp.371-386.
    • Cooper, C. (1989) Destination Life Cycle. The Isle of Man Case Study. Annals of tourism research, Vol. 16, pp.377-398
    • Dann, G., (1980) Tourist motivation. An appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research. VIII (2): 187-219.
    • Dann, G., (1989) The tourist as child. Some Reflections. Centre des Hautes Etudes Touristiques, Serie C., N. 135.
    • Dann G.- Cohen E., (1991) Sociology of Tourism στο Tourism Social Science Special Issue, Annals of Tourism Research 18,1 , p. 155-169.
    • Dritsas, M. (2006) From travelers accounts to travel books: the formation of a Greek tourism market in the 19th century. Tourismos, Vol.1 (1): 27-52
    • Fredline, E. and Faulkner, B. (2000) Host Community Reactions, A cluster Analysis, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.27, No 3, pp.763-784.
    • Griffiths, I. and Sharpley, R. (2012) Influences of nationalism on tourist –host relationships, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.39, No.4, pp.2051-2072
    • Hall, M. (1994) Tourism and Politics: Policy, Power and Place. Chichester: John Wiley.
    • Hampton, M. (2005) Heritage, Local Communities and Economic Development, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.32, No.3, pp.735-759.
    • Haralambopoulos, N. and Pizam, A. (1996) Perceived Impacts of Tourism. The Case of Samos, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.23, No.3, pp.503-526.
    • Hudson, S. & Ritchie, J. R. (2006) Film Tourism and Destination Marketing: The case of Captain Corellis’ Mandolin, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol.12, No.3, 256:268.
    • Hunter, C. (1997) Sustainable Tourism as a Adaptive Paradigm, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp.850-867.
    • Kneafsey, M. (2000) Tourism, Place Identities and Social Relations in the European Rural Periphery, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol.7, No.1, pp.35-50.
    • Keogh, B. (1990) Public Participation in Community Tourism Planning, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.17, pp.449-465.
    • Krippendorf, J. (1989) The Holiday –Makers: Understanding the impact of leisure and Travel, London, Heinemann (κεφάλαιο 4, 5)
    • Lanfant M.L., (1995), “International Tourism, Internationalization and the Challenge to Identity”, στο M.F Lanfant, J.B Allcock και Ε. Bruner (επιμ.), International Tourism: Identity and change, London: Sage.
    • Lea, J.P. (1993) Tourism development ethics in the Third World. Annals of tourism research, 20 (4):701-715
    • Maroudas, L., Gouvis, D. and Kyriakaki, A. (2004) A Community Approach to Mountain Adventure Tourism Development, Anatolia, Vol. 15, pp.5-18.
    • Martin, B.S. and Uysal, M. (1990) An examination of the relationship between carrying capacity and the tourism lifecycle: Management and policy implications, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol.31, pp.327-333.
    • Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. (1982) Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. New York: Longman.
    • McCade, S. and Stokoe, E. (2004) Place and Identity in Tourists’ Accounts, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.31, No.3, pp.601-622.
    • MacCannel, D. (1976) The Tourist: A new Theory of the leisure class, New York, Schocken Books, « Staged Authenticity» pp.91-105.
    • Malloy, D.C., Fennell, D.A. (1998) Codes of Ethics and Tourism: An exploratory content analysis, Tourism Management, Vol.19, No.5, pp.453-461.
    • McCabe, S. (2009) who needs a Holiday? Evaluating Social Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.36, No.4, pp. 667-688
    • Minnaert, L. Maitland, R. & Miller, G. (2009) Tourism and Social Policy. The value of Social Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.36, No.2, pp. 316-334
    • Noronha, R. (1975) Review of the Sociological Literature on Tourism. Washington, D.C: The World Bank.
    • Pearce, P.L., Moscardo, G. and Ross, G.F. (1996) Tourism Community Relationships. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    • Reisinger, Y. (1994) Social contact between tourists and hosts of different cultural backgrounds, Tourism. The State of the Art, Edited by Seaton, A.V., John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 743-754.
    • Ryan, C. & Kinder, R. (1996) Sex, Tourism and Sex Tourism: fulfilling similar needs?, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.17, No.7, pp.507-518
    • Saarinen, J. (2006) Traditions of Sustainability in Tourism Studies, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.33, No.4 pp.1121-1140.
    • Smith, V. and Eadington, W. (1992) Tourism Alternatives. Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
    • Sonmez, S.F. (1998) Tourism, Terrorism and Political Instability, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.25, No.2, pp. 416-456
    • Tower, J. (1985) The Grand Tour. A Key phase in the History of Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.12, pp. 297-333
    • Terkenli, T. (2005b) New Landscape spatialities: the changing scales of function and symbolism, Landscape and Urban Planning. Vol.70, pp.165-176.
    • Tosun, C. (2000) Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries, Tourism Management, Vol.21, pp.613-633.
    • Tsartas P., (2003) Tourism Development in Greek Insular and Coastal Areas: Sociocultural Changes and Crucial Policy Issues, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol 11, No. 2-3, p. 116-132.
    • Urry, J. (1990) The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. Sage Publications, London.
    • Urry, J., (1992) The tourist gaze, Sage Publications, London, «Gazing on History», pp. 104-134 (κεφάλαιο 6)
    • Wheeller, B. (1994) “Tourism and the Environment. A Symbiotic, Symbolic or Shambolic Relationship?”. In Seaton, A.V. (eds.), Tourism. The State of The Art. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 647 – 655.
  • Learning activities and Teaching Methods:
    • Course of lectures
    • Lectures from external cooperators of Post-graduate program
    • Course notes
    • Case studies (analysis and discussion)
    • Projects (presentation and discussion)
  • Assessment/Grading Methods:
    • Projects (50% of the total mark) and
    • Written exams (50% of the total mark)
  • Language of Instruction: Greek
  • Mode of delivery: Face to face
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